Your Cart

Understanding How Emotions Are Reinforced

Date: March 1, 2024

How to cite: Barata, R. (2024). Understanding How Emotions Are Reinforced. Human-Animal Science.

Contemporary trends in dog training suggest that emotions cannot be reinforced. This publication critically examines the traditional behaviorist approach alongside the contemporary neurocognitive perspective to elucidate the technical nuances of emotion reinforcement in dogs (and mammals in general), challenging the notion that emotions are impervious to such processes.

The traditional behaviorist framework posits that behaviors, rather than emotions, are the primary targets of reinforcement. According to this view, emotions are seen as byproducts of conditioning, secondary to observable behavioral changes. This perspective has historically guided dog training practices, focusing on modifying observable actions through reinforcement without direct consideration of the underlying emotional states.

Asserting that fear is not a behavior overlooks the broad definition of behavior in psychological terms, which includes both observable actions and internal states or responses. Fear, while often regarded as an emotional state, manifests through various behaviors, such as avoidance, freezing, or physiological responses, which can indeed be modified or influenced through conditioning processes.

As a different field, neuroscience offers a different perspective on understanding animal emotions by integrating insights from genetics, which reveal the hereditary aspects of emotional responses; neurobiology, which examines the brain structures and neural pathways involved in emotions; and cognitive science, which explores the processing and expression of emotions. It also suggests that emotions are not merely reactions to external stimuli but are also shaped by intrinsic factors such as genetic predispositions and cognitive evaluations. It posits that through understanding these complex interplays, reinforcement can indeed influence emotional states by altering the environmental and cognitive contexts in which emotional responses are elicited.

The adherence of some dog trainers to the belief that emotions cannot be reinforced may stem from several factors:

  1. Methodological Tradition: A reliance on behaviorist principles that prioritize observable behavior changes over internal states, possibly due to the direct measurability and simplicity of behavior-based approaches.
  2. Operational Challenges: The difficulty in quantifying and objectively assessing emotional changes in dogs, as opposed to clear, observable behaviors, makes it challenging to demonstrate emotional reinforcement empirically.
  3. Conceptual Misunderstandings: A possible lack of awareness, knowledge, study, or understanding of the neuroscience and neurocognitive research that illuminates how emotional states in dogs can be influenced by various forms of reinforcement, including social and environmental modifications.
  4. Terminology Confusion and Subjective Interpretations: A significant barrier to the acceptance of emotional reinforcement among dog trainers is the conflation of terminology and reliance on subjective interpretations. Many trainers blend concepts from different psychological theories without a clear distinction, leading to misunderstandings about what constitutes reinforcement, behavior, and emotion. Additionally, the appeal to anecdotal evidence and compelling narratives found in social media or popular publications further muddies the waters. Influential authors and online content creators, who echo similar beliefs about the non-reinforceability of emotions, often shape trainers' perspectives more than the wide academic literature easily accessible for any proactive person, as you’ll confirm at the end. This reliance on less rigorous sources contributes to the perpetuation of misconceptions and incorporation of inaccurate neuroscientific insights into training practices and discussions, which is the current problem in the field.

Neuroscientific Perspective:

Limbic System Involvement:

  • The limbic system, a set of brain structures including the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex, plays a crucial role in emotion processing and reinforcement.
  • The amygdala is instrumental in emotional learning and memory, particularly fear conditioning. It assesses emotional salience and generates appropriate emotional responses.
  • The hippocampus facilitates the formation of emotional memories, which are crucial for reinforcing future emotional responses based on past experiences.
  • The prefrontal cortex regulates emotions and decision-making processes, allowing for the modulation of emotional responses based on social norms and logical reasoning.
  • Nucleus Accumbens: Plays a central role in the reinforcement circuit. It releases dopamine in response to reinforcing stimuli, reinforcing behaviors that lead to positive emotions.

Neurotransmitter Systems and Hormones:

  • Dopamine pathways, particularly in the mesolimbic system, are associated with the reward circuit, reinforcing pleasurable emotions.
  • Serotonin influences mood, anxiety, and happiness, and its dysregulation is linked to mood disorders.
  • Norepinephrine affects arousal and alertness, mediating stress responses and emotional intensity.
  • Cortisol: The "stress hormone" is released in response to stress and can reinforce the emotional response to stressful or threatening situations.

Neural Plasticity:

  • Repeated emotional experiences can lead to neural plasticity, where the brain's structure and function are modified, reinforcing specific emotional responses. This is evident in phenomena like fear conditioning and habituation.

Synaptic Strengthening

  • Synaptic strengthening, or long-term potentiation (LTP), is a process where repeated stimulation of a neural pathway increases the strength of synaptic transmission. This mechanism is crucial for learning and memory and applies to emotional learning as well. Emotional experiences can lead to LTP in neural circuits associated with emotion, reinforcing these emotional responses.

Neural Circuits and Feedback Loops

  • The brain operates through complex neural circuits and feedback loops that involve cortical and subcortical regions. The prefrontal cortex (PFC), which is involved in decision-making and moderating social behavior, can regulate the emotional responses generated by the limbic system. Through top-down regulation, the PFC can reinforce or inhibit emotional responses based on past experiences and cognitive appraisal of the situation.

Exploring the Neurocognitive Perspective

Neurobiological Basis of Emotions:

  • The neurobiology field has highlighted the role of specific brain regions, such as the amygdala and prefrontal cortex, in processing emotions. The amygdala, for instance, is crucial in fear and aggression, while the prefrontal cortex regulates these responses.
  • Neurotransmitters like dopamine, serotonin, and oxytocin play significant roles in mood regulation and emotional bonding. For example, oxytocin release during positive interactions with humans and dogs can reinforce the attachment.

Cognitive and Social Influences on Emotions:

  • Dogs have shown the ability to interpret human emotional signals, such as tone of voice and body language, which can influence their emotional states. A dog might sense its owner's stress and react accordingly, reinforcing their emotional response to human states.
  • Social learning is another key aspect. Dogs can learn from observing other dogs or humans, which can influence their emotional reactions. For instance, a dog might learn to associate a vet visit with fear if it observes other dogs exhibiting fearful behavior in that context.

Genetic and Temperamental Factors:

  • Genetics play a role in predisposing dogs to certain emotional responses. For instance, some breeds are more prone to anxiety or fearfulness, which can be reinforced through their interactions with their environment.
  • Individual temperament, influenced by genetics and early life experiences, also affects how a dog processes and reinforces emotional states.

Cognitive-Appraisal Theory:

  • This theory suggests that an individual's perception and evaluation of an event influence their emotional experience. The cognitive appraisal process involves two stages: primary appraisal (assessing whether an event is positive, neutral, or negative) and secondary appraisal (considering one's ability to cope with the outcome of the event). While more applicable to humans due to the complexity of cognitive processes involved, aspects of this theory can relate to animals in how they assess their environment and how this assessment influences their emotional state.

Learning Theories Perspective:

Classical Conditioning:

  • This learning process, demonstrated by Pavlov, involves associating a neutral stimulus with an emotionally charged stimulus, leading to a conditioned emotional response.
  • For example, if a sound (neutral stimulus) is repeatedly paired with a painful stimulus (unconditioned stimulus), the sound alone can evoke a fear response (conditioned response).

Operant Conditioning:

  • B.F. Skinner’s theory posits that behaviors followed by positive outcomes are more likely to be repeated, while those followed by adverse outcomes are less likely.
  • In the context of emotions, behaviors that result in positive emotional states (like happiness or relief) are reinforced. In contrast, those leading to negative emotions (like fear or sadness) might be avoided.

Social Learning Theory:

  • Developed by Albert Bandura, social learning theory posits that learning occurs within a social context and can happen purely through observation or instruction, even in the absence of motor reproduction or direct reinforcement. This theory emphasizes the role of observational learning, imitation, and modeling in reinforcing emotions and behaviors. For instance, pets might observe and mimic the emotional responses of their human caretakers or other animals in their environment, reinforcing certain emotional behaviors without direct experience.

Note: Arguing against the perspective that reinforcement should only be associated with operant conditioning requires a nuanced understanding of the fundamental principles of learning and behavior modification. Reinforcement, at its core, is about increasing the likelihood of a behavior or response through the use of stimuli, a principle that is not limited to the deliberate manipulation of outcomes as seen in operant conditioning.

Classical conditioning also involves the modification of behavior. The process of pairing a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus to produce a conditioned response can be seen as reinforcing because it increases the likelihood of the conditioned response to the previously neutral stimulus (Olson, 2016). Moreover, the distinction between classical and operant conditioning is not always clear-cut in real-world learning scenarios. Many behaviors are influenced by a combination of associative learning and the consequences of actions, suggesting that reinforcement operates along a continuum rather than within strictly defined categories. For example, the development of phobias can be explained through classical conditioning, but the maintenance of avoidance behavior can be reinforced operantly by the relief it provides, demonstrating the interconnectedness of these learning processes.

Furthermore, the argument that reinforcement should be an exclusive term for operant conditioning overlooks the adaptive significance of learning and physiological mechanisms. Both classical and operant conditioning have evolved to help organisms learn from their environment in ways that enhance survival and reproduction. The concept of reinforcement is fundamental to understanding how organisms adapt to their environments. Therefore, limiting the concept of reinforcement to operant conditioning, as widely read in social media, is inaccurate and neglects the complexity and diversity of learning and behavior modification mechanisms. 

Expanding on the Behaviorist Approach

Detailed Mechanisms of Classical Conditioning:

  • Classical conditioning in dogs often involves creating associations between stimuli and emotional responses. For example, if a dog repeatedly hears a specific sound (like a whistle) before mealtime, it may begin to associate that sound with the pleasure of eating, leading to excitement upon hearing the whistle.

Operant Conditioning Nuances:

  • In operant conditioning, emotional reinforcement is closely tied to the consequences of the dog's behavior. If a behavior leads to a positive outcome (like receiving a treat or affection), the dog will likely repeat the behavior, reinforcing the associated positive emotion.
  • Negative reinforcement also plays a role, where a behavior that leads to the cessation of an unpleasant stimulus (like stopping a loud noise) reinforces the behavior through relief or decreased anxiety.

Emotional Extinction and Counterconditioning:

  • Extinction occurs when a conditioned emotional response diminishes over time as the conditioned stimulus is presented without the unconditioned stimulus. For example, if the sound of a doorbell is no longer followed by visitors, a dog's excitement or anxiety may gradually decrease.
  • Counterconditioning involves replacing an unwanted emotional response with a more desirable one. This is often used in behavior modification programs to address fearful or aggressive behaviors.

Integrating Neuroscience and Behaviorism:

  • Emotional Learning: Both fields acknowledge that emotional responses can be learned and modified based on experience. Neuroscience explains the underlying brain mechanisms, while behaviorism focuses on observable behaviors and their consequences.
  • Feedback Loops: Behaviorism's reinforcement principles align with the neuroscientific understanding of reward pathways. Behaviors leading to positive emotional states activate reward circuits in the brain, possibly reinforcing these behaviors.
  • Adaptive Significance: Emotions have an adaptive role from an evolutionary perspective. Neuroscience explains this through the brain's mechanisms for survival (e.g., fear response), while behaviorism interprets it through the lens of behaviors that have been reinforced over time for survival advantages.
  • Affective Neuroscience: Affective neuroscience explores the neural mechanisms of emotions, offering insights into how emotions are processed and reinforced at the biological level. This field studies how different brain regions (like the amygdala, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus) and neurotransmitter systems contribute to the formation and reinforcement of emotional experiences. For example, positive interactions with pets can lead to the release of oxytocin in both humans and animals.
  • Emotional Regulation Theory: Emotional regulation involves the processes by which individuals influence which emotions they have, when they have them, and how they experience and express these emotions. This theory is complex and primarily human-focused, but aspects can be applied to understanding how pets manage or modify their emotional responses based on their environment or training. For example, pets can learn to regulate their emotional responses to stimuli (like reducing fearfulness or aggressiveness) through training and socialization.
  • Attachment Theory: Originally formulated to describe the dynamics of human relationships, attachment theory has also been applied to understand the bonds between humans and pets. This theory suggests that the quality of attachment affects emotional security and behavior. Secure attachments can reinforce positive emotions and adaptive behaviors, while insecure attachments may lead to anxiety and maladaptive behaviors. Pets, like humans, can exhibit signs of secure or insecure attachment based on their interactions with their caregivers, influencing their emotional well-being.

Integrated Emotional Model

My suggestion on this topic introduces the Integrated Emotional Model (IEM) for animal training, a direct approach that emphasizes the emotional, cognitive, and social complexities of animals. This suggestion encourages a nuanced understanding of animal behavior, steering clear of anthropomorphism—the tendency to attribute human emotions and motivations to animals, which can lead to misunderstandings and misinterpretations of their actions and needs.

The IEM focuses on accurately recognizing and interpreting animals' behavioral signals, a crucial skill for tailoring training to each animal's unique circumstances and promoting their well-being. By carefully avoiding the pitfalls of anthropomorphism and grounding our practices in evidence-based understanding of animal behavior, the IEM offers a realistic, respectful framework for enhancing animal training, ensuring it is both effective and considerate of the animal's emotional state.

In practice, the IEM challenges trainers and owners to be more attuned to the subtle nuances of animal behavior. It underscores the importance of creating training scenarios that are not only physically safe but also emotionally supportive, allowing animals to learn and thrive without fear or distress.

The Integrated Emotional Model represents a forward-thinking approach to training that prioritizes the health and welfare of animals, paving the way for more humane and educated interactions between humans and the animals in their care.

Intrinsic Emotional Factors:

  • An animal's emotional responses are not solely products of conditioning but are also influenced by inherent factors like genetics, neurobiology, and individual temperament.
  • Neuroscientific research, including fMRI studies, indicates that dogs have complex neural networks for processing emotions, implying an innate aspect of their emotional experiences.
  • Understand and accommodate the living (biotic) elements, such as social interactions, health, and nutrition, alongside non-living (abiotic) factors like temperature, habitat structure, and sensory stimuli. This balance ensures training is adapted to each animal's environmental context, promoting comfort, focus, and optimal learning conditions.

Cognitive and Social Elements:

  • Dogs demonstrate significant cognitive abilities, including understanding human signals and influencing their emotional responses beyond simple conditioning.
  • Studies in canine social cognition illustrate that dogs are sensitive to human emotions, indicating that their emotional states are shaped by their interactions with humans and their environment, not just through reinforcement.
  • Incorporating a critical perspective on anthropomorphism, it's imperative to balance our beliefs with scientific understanding. While recognizing the emotional lives of the animals, we must avoid projecting human emotions and motivations onto them, which could lead to misinterpretations and inappropriate responses to their needs. This critical stance encourages a respectful and nuanced approach to interpreting animals' behaviors and emotional states.

Integrating Neurobiological Insights:

  • The exploration of neurobiology has enriched our understanding of animal emotions, identifying specific brain regions and neurotransmitter systems involved in emotion processing. This parallel with human emotional neurobiology offers insights into the evolutionary continuity of emotional mechanisms across species, emphasizing the importance of a neurobiologically informed approach to training and health care.
  • The role of neuroendocrine factors, like the oxytocin system, in mediating social bonding and stress responses highlights the biochemical underpinnings of animal emotions. These insights underscore the importance of considering how emotional well-being is linked to physical health and advocating for training and care practices that support both aspects.

Critical Thinking Models for Practical Analysis:

  • Systemic Thinking
  • Systemic thinking encourages trainers to view the training process as part of a larger system, recognizing the interconnectedness of various elements affecting an animal's learning and behavior. Here's how to apply this thinking:
  1. Identify Interconnections: Understand how different aspects of the animal's life, such as home environment, interactions with humans and other animals, and previous training experiences, influence their behavior and response to training.
  2. Holistic Approach: Develop training plans that consider these interconnections, aiming for consistency across different environments and situations. This approach ensures that behaviors learned in training are transferable and stable across contexts.

  • Feedback Loops: Pay attention to feedback from the animal during training sessions. This includes not only direct responses to commands or cues but also more subtle signs of stress, confusion, or engagement. Adjust training strategies based on this feedback to create a more responsive and adaptive training process.

  • Critical Thinking: Critical Thinking in animal training involves questioning assumptions, analyzing information, and evaluating the effectiveness of training methods. Practical steps include:
  1. Question Assumptions: Challenge common beliefs about animal behavior and training methods. This could involve re-evaluating the use of certain rewards or punishments based on the latest research or the specific needs of the animal.
  2. Evidence-Based Decisions: Use scientific research and data to inform training practices. This means staying updated on the latest studies in animal behavior and neurobiology and applying those insights to training methodologies.

  • Reflect and Evaluate: Regularly assess the outcomes of training sessions, not just in terms of immediate behavior changes but also considering long-term effects on the animal's emotional and physical well-being. This reflective practice allows for continual improvement and adaptation of training methods.

The “Comfort” Discussion

The notion that emotions are immutable has been popularized, in part, by examples of comforting dogs in distress. This belief, appealing due to its emotional resonance and the desire to alleviate animal suffering, ironically contributes to its proliferation. This trend continues despite contradicting the academic consensus, as shown in the documents and references below, and is propelled by mechanisms of social reinforcement and cultural survival.

Many pet owners and trainers advocate the practice of comforting dogs during storms despite its contentious nature and extensive documentation in academic circles. Exploring neuroscience, learning theory, and canine behavior sheds light on the potential drawbacks of this approach:

Emotional Reinforcement: A Scientific Fact

  • Contrary to popular belief, neuroscience supports the concept that emotions can be reinforced, with experiences shaping or modifying the brain's neural pathways, thereby influencing emotional responses. This well-established scientific principle has yet to fully permeate the dog training industry, where misconceptions still persist.

The “Double-Edged Sword” of Comfort

  • Fear conditioning illustrates that both emotions and behaviors associated with fear can be reinforced. The effectiveness of comfort as reinforcement varies by individual and situation. If a dog interprets comfort as a positive reinforcement during a storm, this could unintentionally encourage fearful behavior. Alternatively, if the comfort alleviates fear, it may serve as negative reinforcement, encouraging the dog to seek comfort in future stressful situations.

The Importance of Fostering Independence

  • Over-reliance on comfort can hinder a dog's development of independent coping mechanisms. Encouraging autonomy while providing safe spaces is crucial for a dog's emotional health, especially in the absence of their owner.

The Impact of the Owner's Emotional State

  • Dogs are highly sensitive to human emotions, and an owner's distress can amplify a dog's fear, creating a compounded reaction to both the storm and the owner's state of mind.

Inconsistency and Confusion

  • The unpredictable nature of storms, coupled with inconsistent human reactions, can result in confusing and potentially detrimental comforting practices, affecting the dog negatively.

Towards a More Informed Approach

  • While the intention behind comforting dogs is compassionate, a deeper understanding of canine emotions and behavior underscores the necessity of a more informed approach. Overlooking scientific research and the individual needs of each dog, as well as failing to consider the specific context, can perpetuate the notion of dogs as perpetually vulnerable. This "poor dog syndrome" becomes a marketing niche, detracting from the need to provide accurate information and promote resilience.

In conclusion of this topic, to provide comfort to dogs during storms, we need to maintain a balance between compassion and scientific understanding. It is important to take into account the complicated emotional states of canines, the tendency for subjective assumptions, the tiny line of anthropomorphism, and the impact of human behavior on them. This will help dogs develop the skills they need to tackle challenges independently. We should move past simplistic notions of vulnerability and strive to develop a more resilient and informed relationship between dogs and their owners.




Adolphs R. (2013). The biology of fear. Current biology: C.B.23(2), R79–R93.

Adolphs, R., & Anderson, D. J. (2018). The neuroscience of emotion: A New Synthesis. Princeton University Press.

Olson, M. & Hergenhahn, B. R. (2016). Theories of Learning, Ninth edition. Psychology Press.